Your personal estate planning.
Every adult person should have an estate plan. One way of
estate plan is the living trust. The purpose of this brochure is to
give you answers to questions frequently asked about living trusts so
you can determine whether a living trust is right for you.
What is a living trust?
A living trust, also known as a revocable trust, is an
to own property. You create a living trust during your lifetime by
signing a trust agreement which is a legal document that directs how
property transferred to the trust will be managed, when and to whom the
income and principal from the trust will be paid, and to whom the trust
property will be distributed when you die. You are called the settlor,
grantor, or trustor of the trust, while the person to whom you transfer
your property is called the trustee. The persons who will receive the
income during your lifetime or who will receive the trust property
after your death, are called the beneficiaries. You may be the settlor,
a trustee and a beneficiary, all at the same time. The property in the
trust is called the trust principal, corpus, or res. As the settlor,
you may change the terms of the trust agreement or may revoke the trust
and regain ownership of the trust property.
Do I need a living trust?
You may decide you need a living trust, but first you should
your own situation with your lawyer to decide whether or not a trust is
correct for you. It could be that a will, some other type of trust, or
other arrangements would better fit your situation.
Whom should I name as trustee?
You may be the only trustee or you may be a co-trustee. You
another individual(s), or financial institution with trust powers, as
your trustee. You should also provide for a successor trustee to act in
the future in the event of your disability or after your death. Anyone
you select as a co-trustee or successor trustee should be capable and
trustworthy. Family members may or may not be selected by you depending
upon your circumstances and their abilities. You should also consider
whether a bank can provide services that an individual cannot, but keep
in mind that only banks with trust authority can act as trustee.
Why is there so much publicity about living trusts?
It is possible to avoid probate of assets held in a living
of the current interest comes from concern and publicity about the
perceived cost and length of time to complete a probate. Lengthy delays
and excessive costs of probate are problems in some heavily populated
states, but in South
Dakota probate can be relatively simple and economical. You
consult with your lawyer about the comparative costs of various estate
What are the advantages of a living trust?
- You can have another person or
bank which has expertise act as a trustee and make investment or other
management decisions for you.
- You can avoid the necessity of
having a conservator manage your property if you become incompetent,
but only if all of your property is in the trust.
- After your death, the trustee
can distribute the trust assets directly to the beneficiaries without
probate. This is particularly beneficial if you own real estate in more
than one state as it may avoid having to conduct a probate proceeding
in each state.
- It may be more difficult to
contest than a will.
- After your death, the costs
and expenses for personal representatives, lawyers, accountants and
others may be less.
- It is possible that a living
trust can be kept more confidential than a will.
What are the disadvantages of a living trust?
- You will undoubtedly spend
more time and money in properly creating and transferring your assets
to a living trust than you would to have a will prepared.
- To effectively avoid probate,
you must keep track of your assets and keep all of your property in the
trust, including property acquired after you create the trust.
- You may experience problems in
transferring or selling assets or making purchases with trust checks
and encounter banks, transfer agents or others who want to see the
trust agreement in order to know that the trustee has certain powers
- Upon your disability or death,
the management of your trust assets will depend upon the honesty and
management ability of your successor trustee who may act without court
control or involvement.
- You may have to pay trustee's
fees and expenses if you use a third party as trustee, including the
costs of filing an annual trust income tax return.
- Because a living trust does
not require that notice be given to your creditors, a creditor can make
a claim against the trust beneficiaries years after your death.
- No court determines the
validity of the trust as the case with a will.
Does a living trust save taxes?
The grantor of a revocable living trust retains control of the
property. Therefore, for federal income tax purposes, as long as you
act as the trustee or the co-trustee and the trust uses your social
security number for its taxpayer identification number, your living
trust will be treated no differently than if you had not created the
trust. Likewise, you will not save any death taxes (state or federal)
simply because you have created a living trust since you have not
irrevocably disposed of the trust assets. Although, a properly prepared
living trust can save death taxes, exactly the same savings can be
achieved by a will.
How do I transfer ownership of my property to the trust?
In order to avoid probate, you must transfer the ownership of
every asset to the trust. To transfer real property, a deed must be
signed and recorded; transfer of publicly traded stocks and bonds will
likely require the services of a broker; transfer of partnerships and
closely held corporations may require the review of the governing
instruments to determine whether other partners or stockholders must
consent to such transfer; assets without formal legal title such as
household contents and farm machinery will require a bill of sale.
What if I do not transfer all of my property to the trust?
Any property which you do not transfer to the trust will be
probate and distribution as set out in your will or the South Dakota
laws providing for distribution of your estate if you do not have a
will. You should have a will to cover any assets that are not
transferred to the trust. This may be a "pourover will" which transfers
any property which you own at the time of your death to your living
trust or a will which has other provisions.
Can my successor trustee immediately distribute property from
after my death?
Generally, no. Your trustee must first pay your debts and
resolve any trust problems, file tax returns (income, state estate tax
and federal estate tax) and pay any taxes that are due and owing.
Once I set up a trust, can I change my mind?
Yes. While you are alive and competent, you are in complete
your trust. You may change or terminate the trust at any time provided
the trust document specifically gives you that right.
Can I use a living trust form or kit that I buy?
You can use a form or kit or even prepare the trust agreement
but your situation may not fit the form, or the form may have been
poorly prepared and may lead to adverse tax consequences and conflicts
over property distributions. Problems with the fonus or kits may not
surface until years later, sometimes not until after your death when
you cannot change the trust and clear up the problem.
Certain publicity and persons selling living trust kits have
misleading people into thinking that the property in a living trust is
protected from taxes and creditors. This is not true! A living trust
will not protect your property from nursing home expenses, hospital
bills, or other creditors, nor will the creation of a living trust
qualify you for Medicaid.
You have taken a lifetime to accumulate your wealth. You
great care to make certain that your estate plan carries out your
wishes without problems. A living trust may or may not be right for
you. Competent professional help is essential to make certain that your
estate plan meets your specific needs.
This brochure is based on South Dakota law and is designed to
not to advise. No person should ever apply or interpret any law without
the aid of an attorney who know the facts and may be aware of any
changes in the law.
Published by The State Bar
of South Dakota
222 E. Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501-2596